For example, the copy of chromosome 1 that a gamete receives in no way influences if the same gamete will receive the maternally-derived or paternally-derived chromosome 4. During meiosis, genetic information is exchanged between the maternally and paternally inherited copies of a pair of chromosomes in order to create new combinations of genes. When referring to one of a pair of homologous chromosomes it is common to refer to this as a homolog, for short.
Most cells reproduce to form identical copies, or daughter cells, for the purpose of growth or repair. In metaphase I, the pairs migrate to the equatorial plane of the cell. After division the cells undergo differentiation to become sperm cells. In flowering plants angiosperms the multicelled visible plant leaf, stem, etc. Mitosis maintains ploidy level, while meiosis reduces it. Meiosis, on the other hand, reduces the number of sets of chromosomes by half, so that when gametic recombination fertilization occurs the ploidy of the parents will be reestablished.
The above image is from http: This process is called mitosis. The nuclear envelope begins to disappear and spindle fibers begin to form at the poles of the cell. The spindle now disappears.
The cellular division in meiosis I is called the reduction division because it results in the reduction of the chromosome number from diploid cell has two copies of each chromosome, one maternal and one paternal chromosome to haploid cell has only one copy of each chromosome, either maternally-derived or paternally-derived chromosome.
At birth each female carries a lifetime supply of developing oocytes, each of which is in Prophase I.
Metaphase II is similar to mitosis, with spindles moving chromosomes into equatorial area and attaching to the opposite sides of the centromeres in the kinetochore region. DNA replication occurs. Images from Purves et al. This doubles the variability of gamete genotypes. The second cell division completes, resulting in four haploid cells or gametes. In telophase II, the movement of the chromosomes to the poles is completed and the spindle disappears.
The two sperm cells split again producing four sperm cells, each with 23 or n chromosomes. A chiasma occurs at least once per chromosome pair. The vast majority of cell divisions in the human body are mitotic, with meiosis being restricted to the gonads. Meiosis may be considered a reduction phase followed by a slightly altered mitosis.