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Many respondents had difficulties naming specific companies, which indicates poor knowledge of the foreign technologies available. The polluter-pays-principle is employed, but levels of charges are not high enough as yet to be a major stimulus for polluters to introduce environmental improvements. French water supply systems in Poland. The most common problems include: However, Italian companies had a notable presence on the Slovenian market.

The size of the environmental technology market in Slovakia was estimated at USD 174 million in 1995. As regards wastewater treatment technologies, it should be stressed that conventional treatment systems are generally readily available on local markets, largely based on domestic technologies. Interestingly, about a quarter of interviewed businesses expressed a strong need for a periodical presenting environmental business opportunities.

In all other cases the tender must be called if the price is higher than 5 million crowns USD 182,000. In general: Waste Acts in Poland and Hungary or has been adopted recently hazardous waste regulations in Hungary.

Another frequently mentioned priority is the elimination of shortages in high-quality drinking water supply in urban areas, mainly through the construction of additional water treatment works, construction of wastewater treatment plants in cities located along major rivers, and the reduction of pollution loads discharged by industry and the municipalities into rivers. Another important field is the improvement of sanitary conditions in rural areas by supplementing village water supply systems with adequate sanitation.

Interestingly, waste-to-energy facilities were not in high demand. Other industrial branches e. The presence of foreign firms is most significant in the field of waste management. Additional environmental damage has been caused in some cases by forestry mismanagement, poor agricultural practices and intensive tourism.

Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland. Aside from capacity problems, the cost of waste disposal is also rising sharply. Other significant end-users of air pollution control equipment included the chemical industry and transport, followed by various other industries — metallurgy, pharmaceutical, paper etc. CR Air emissions from coal combustion, next 50 years. North Bohemia in the Czech Republic, Dunaujvaros and Varpalota in Hungary, Silesia in Poland, and the Kosice region in Slovakia are examples of areas strongly polluted as a result of heavy industrialization.

The system for assessing environmental fees and fines is rather complex, and the scope of responsibilities of various authorities varies, depending on the environmental media and the nature of the payment fee vs. Major project opportunities are expected in water and wastewater treatment, and in the energy generation sector. Water The main project opportunities in the water management sector are related to the construction of new, and modernization of existing water supply and wastewater treatment systems throughout the country.

Generally, all the surveyed countries have established three levels of environmental administration: This indicates that the judgment was based more on common wisdom than on personal experience. However, at this point, most experts were skeptical as to their usefulness as an information source. Finally, in some countries the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia there was demand for alternative non-CFC refrigerants for use in various industrial sectors.